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Chordoid glioma is a rare neoplasm occurring in the third ventricle and, as the name implies, having a chordoid appearance. It is currently considered a glial neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with distinct clinicopathologic features.


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INCIDENCE Very rare, less than 40 cases reported
AGE RANGE-MEDIAN 24-70 years
Females slightly favored


Origin of chordoid glioma of the third ventricle.

Leeds NE, Lang FF, Ribalta T, Sawaya R, Fuller GN.

Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006 Apr;130(4):460-4. Abstract quote  

CONTEXT: Chordoid glioma is a relatively recently described unique glial neoplasm that has been formally codified by the World Health Organization in Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Nervous System, in which it is included along with astroblastoma and gliomatosis cerebri under the rubric "Tumors of Uncertain Origin." Many examples of chordoid glioma come to clinical attention only at a relatively large size and occupy a large portion of the third ventricle. Accordingly, the anatomic origin of chordoid glioma has been unclear and debated.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the regional anatomic origin of chordoid glioma.

DATA SOURCES: The clinical, imaging, histologic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural data in previously published case series and individual case reports of chordoid glioma were reviewed in conjunction with the study of a new case of chordoid glioma that presented at a relatively small size, thereby facilitating neuroanatomic localization.

CONCLUSIONS: Chordoid glioma exhibits features of specialized ependymal differentiation on ultrastructural examination, and all examples reported in the literature to date have displayed a highly stereotypical suprasellar anatomic localization and an ovoid shape, as seen on neuroimaging studies and gross anatomy. Neuroanatomic, radiologic, and clinical evidence supports an anatomic origin for chordoid glioma from the vicinity of the lamina terminalis.

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characterization of a novel tumor entity.

Reifenberger G, Weber T, Weber RG, Wolter M, Brandis A, Kuchelmeister K, Pilz P, Reusche E, Lichter P, Wiestler OD.

Institut fur Neuropathologie und Hirntumor-Referenzzentrum der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Neuropathologie und Neuroanatomie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat, Bonn, Germany.

Brain Pathol 1999 Oct;9(4):617-26 Abstract quote

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle was recently reported as a novel tumor entity of the central nervous system with characteristic clinical and histopathological features (Brat et al., J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57: 283-290, 1998).

Here, we report on a histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis of five cases of this rare neoplasm. All tumors were immunohistochemically investigated for the expression of various differentiation antigens, the proliferation marker Ki-67, and a panel of selected proto-oncogene and tumor suppressor gene products. These studies revealed a strong expression of GFAP, vimentin, and CD34. In addition, most tumors contained small fractions of neoplastic cells immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, or cytokeratins. The percentage of Ki-67 positive cells was generally low (<5%). All tumors showed immunoreactivity for the epidermal growth factor receptor and schwannomin/merlin. There was no nuclear accumulation of the p53, p21 (Waf-1) and Mdm2 proteins.

To examine genomic alterations associated with the development of chordoid gliomas, we screened 4 tumors by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. No chromosomal imbalances were detected. More focussed molecular genetic analyses revealed neither aberrations of the TP53 and CDKN2A tumor suppressor genes nor amplification of the EGFR, CDK4, and MDM2 proto-oncogenes.

Our data strongly support the hypothesis that chordoid glioma of the third ventricle constitutes a novel tumor entity characterized by distinct morphological and immunohistochemical features, as well as a lack of chromosomal and genetic alterations commonly found in other types of gliomas or in meningiomas.


CT scan and MRI Well-circumscribed, contrast-enhancing lesions of the suprasellar–third ventricular region

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: CT and MR findings.

Tonami H, Kamehiro M, Oguchi M, Higashi K, Yamamoto I, Njima T, Okamoto K, Akai T, Iizuka H.

Department of Radiology, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2000 Mar-Apr;24(2):336-8 Abstract quote

We present a case of chordoid glioma involving the third ventricle in a 42-year-old woman. CT and MR showed a homogeneously enhancing mass occupying the third ventricle, with a cystic component.

Chordoid glioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of uncommon masses of the third ventricle in middle-aged women.

Chordoid glioma: a neoplasm unique to the hypothalamus and anterior third ventricle.

Pomper MG, Passe TJ, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW, Brat DJ.

Division of Neuroradiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001 Mar;22(3):464-9 Abstract quote

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chordoid glioma is a new clinicopathologic entity that occurs in the region of the hypothalamus/anterior third ventricle. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristic radiographic features of chordoid glioma, identify specific imaging features that may enable differentiation of chordoid glioma from other suprasellar tumors, and increase neuroradiologists' awareness of this newly described tumor, facilitating prospective diagnosis.

METHODS: CT scans and/or MR images of six patients with chordoid glioma were reviewed retrospectively to determine whether any characteristic radiographic features would emerge. Reports of the clinical presentation, pathologic findings, and radiographic findings of another six patients were reviewed and included, for a total patient population of 12 (mean age +/- SD, 46 +/- 13 years).

RESULTS: Imaging features were strikingly similar for all tumors. In each case, the mass was ovoid, was well circumscribed, was located in the region of the hypothalamus/anterior third ventricle, and enhanced uniformly and intensely. Tumors were hyperdense to gray matter on CT scans and were isointense on T1-weighted MR images and slightly hyperintense on long-TR MR images. In two patients, vasogenic edema extended into the optic tracts, and in three, there was hydrocephalus.

CONCLUSION: Chordoid glioma is a recently described unique histopathologic entity that has been added to the World Health Organization glioma classification scheme and must be included in the differential diagnosis of a suprasellar mass. Distinctive imaging features are its location, ovoid shape, hyperdensity on CT scans, and uniform intense contrast enhancement.

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: CT and MRI, including perfusion data.

Grand S, Pasquier B, Gay E, Kremer S, Remy C, Le Bas JF.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unit, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Grenoble, Hopital Michallon, BP 207, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 09, France

Neuroradiology 2002 Oct;44(10):842-6 Abstract quote

Chordoid glioma is a homogeneous tumour involving the third ventricular region of middle-aged women, containing a small central cyst or necrosis. Histologically the tumour has a chordoid appearance.

We report a new case with a haemodynamic imaging approach which indicates tumour angiogenesis at the capillary level.



Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: confirmatory report of a new entity.

Vajtai I, Varga Z, Scheithauer BW, Bodosi M.

Institute of Pathology and Department of Neurosurgery, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi University Medical School, Szeged, Hungary.

Hum Pathol 1999 Jun;30(6):723-6 Abstract quote

The term "chordoid glioma" was recently introduced to denote a circumscribed, apparently low-grade neoplasm arising in or preferentially involving the third ventricle of middle-aged women.

We report biopsy and postmortem findings in a 60-year-old woman with symptoms of forgetfulness, headache, and lethargy. Neuroimaging showed a contrast-enhancing third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumor was subtotally resected. Microscopically, it consisted of clusters and strands of epithelioid cells in a mucoid matrix. Its margins were remarkably discrete and showed little tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain parenchyma. The majority of neoplastic cells were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin positive, whereas S100 protein labeled only individual cells. Stains for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and cytokeratin were nonreactive.

There was no evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation or expression of estrogen and progesteron receptors. Lymphoplasmacellular infiltrates were noted throughout the lesion and at the tumor-brain interface. The MIB-1 labeling index averaged 1.5%. At present, chordoid glioma is considered a glial neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with distinct clinicopathologic features.

Chordoid glioma: a novel tumor of the third ventricle.

Castellano-Sanchez AA, Recine MA, Restrepo R, Howard LH, Robinson MJ.

Arkadi M. Rywlin, MD Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center of Greater Miami, FL 33140, USA.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2000 Dec;4(6):373-8 Abstract quote

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a recently characterized primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. We present a case and discuss the pathologic and radiologic features.

We are aware of only 16 other cases documented in the world literature. This radiologic-pathologic correlation alerts pathologists and radiologists to recognize chordoid glioma as a distinct clinicopathologic entity restricted to the third ventricular area of adult patients.

Chordoid glioma: an uncommon tumour of the third ventricle.

Galloway M, Afshar F, Geddes JF.

Department of Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London, UK.

Br J Neurosurg 2001 Apr;15(2):147-50 Abstract quote

Chordoid glioma, a rare tumour of the third ventricle, has distinctive histological appearances. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature, all but three in females.

This paper describes a 54-year-old man with a chordoid glioma and reviews the clinicopathological features of this lesion.


Suprasellar chordoid glioma.

Ricoy JR, Lobato RD, Baez B, Cabello A, Martinez MA, Rodriguez G.

Department of Pathology, Complutense University School of Medicine, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2000 Jun;99(6):699-703 Abstract quote

Brat et al. (J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57:288-290, 1998) reported eight cases of a new clinico-pathological entity, which occurs mainly in the third ventricle of middle-aged females, which they described as chordoid glioma of the third ventricle.

We report a new case of a 41-year-old woman with a suprasellar chordoid glioma with histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. We discuss the differential diagnosis between chordoma, chordoid meningioma, germinoma and pituitary adenoma. Histologically, the tumour showed cords and lobules of isomorphic epithelioid cells in a vacuolated matrix with prominent multifocal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in which some histiocytes and isolated Touton-type giant cells were seen; cells were immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein but negative for epithelial membrane antigen.

Ultrastructural examination revealed abundant intermediate filament but no desmosomes, microvilli nor cilia were seen.


Third ventricular chordoid glioma: clinicopathological study of two cases with evidence for a poor clinical outcome despite low grade histological features.

Kurian KM, Summers DM, Statham PF, Smith C, Bell JE, Ironside JW.

Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2005 Aug;31(4):354-61. Abstract quote  

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a rare glial tumour whose precise histogenesis remains uncertain.

We describe two cases that presented recently to our department and review the background literature. The neoplasm tends to occur in women and its clinical presentation is variable, resulting from acute hydrocephalus or impingement upon local structures. However, the radiological appearance is distinct, with an ovoid shape, hyperdensity and uniform contrast enhancement on computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Intraoperative smear diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific features, although the presence of metachromatic extracellular mucin may be useful.

The characteristic histological appearance is that of cords and clusters of cohesive, oval-to-polygonal epithelioid cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and a mucinous background. There is often a mixed chronic inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes and plasma cells with Russell bodies.

The main differentials for histological diagnosis include chordoid meningiomas, pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas. An immunohistochemical panel including antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD 34, epithelial membrane antigen, pan cytokeratin, S100 and vimentin can be used to distinguish between these possibilities.

Ultrastructurally the tumour cells have basal lamina and microvilli, reminiscent of ependymomas. The clinical outcome in our cases was poor because of the location of the lesion and its close relation to the hypothalamus. Limited follow-up after surgery with or without radiotherapy suggests that as-full-as-possible resection favours a better outcome, although surgery in this area carries significant operative risks.

Chordoid glioma: report of a case with unusual histologic features, ultrastructural study and review of the literature.

Raizer JJ, Shetty T, Gutin PH, Obbens EA, Holodny AI, Antonescu CR, Rosenblum MK.

Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
J Neurooncol. 2003 May;63(1):39-47. Abstract quote  

Chordoid gliomas are an uncommon primary brain tumor with histologic features of a chordoma and immunolabeling for glial fibrillary acid protein.

We report the 32nd case with a review of the literature. The clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the tumor are presented with new pathologic findings adding support that this lesion may be of ependymal origin.

Treatment and long term outcome are limited but chordoid gliomas appear to be indolent lesions that may be cured with gross total resection.

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: a report of two new cases, with further evidence supporting an ependymal differentiation, and review of the literature.

Pasquier B, Peoc'h M, Morrison AL, Gay E, Pasquier D, Grand S, Sindou M, Kopp N.

Am J Surg Pathol 2002 Oct;26(10):1330-42 Abstract quote

The term chordoid glioma of the third ventricle was first used to describe a rare and slowly growing neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, with chordoid appearance, occurring preferentially in middle-aged women. Herein we report two additional examples of this novel entity together with a literature review based on the 25 cases previously published.

Our review fully confirms the strikingly stereotyped clinical, neuroradiologic, and pathologic features of this unique tumor. The female/male ratio was 1.7:1, and the age range was 24-70 years (mean 44.9 years). In all 27 cases imaging findings were similar showing a well-defined mass (mean 2.8 cm in largest dimension), ovoid in shape, hyperdense on CT scans, with uniform and intense contrast enhancement, arising in the hypothalamic/suprasellar/third ventricular region.

Histologically, the main consistent characteristics were cords and clusters of epithelioid cells within an abundant mucinous and often vacuolated background. Mitoses were sparse or absent and anaplastic features, endothelial proliferation, and necrosis were not identified. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with Russell bodies were frequent throughout the tumor and its interface with adjacent brain parenchyma. Most of the tumor cells revealed a strong and diffuse expression of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Additionally, the vast majority of tumors showed focal coexpression of cytokeratins, CD34, S-100 protein, and epithelial membrane antigen; the MIB-1 labeling indices were uniformly low. Surprisingly for a glioma assigned WHO grade II, the 19 patients with an available but short follow-up (mean 22.5 months; range 6-68 months) experienced a rather poor outcome (three recurrences and seven deaths), probably reflecting the anatomic site of the neoplasm that precludes a complete surgical excision rather than its histologic composition.

Ultrastructural examination of 10 cases demonstrated findings in line with a glial derivation and a putative ependymal origin such as cytoplasmic intermediate filaments, microvilli, intermediate junctions or desmosomes, and focal basal lamina formation. In our case no. 1, and for the first time in this tumor, we observed sparse and abnormal cilia in an aberrant juxtanuclear location, a further argument for considering chordoid glioma as a subtype of ependymoma. However, a better understanding of the biologic behavior and histogenesis of this distinctive clinicopathologic entity needs to be investigated with a larger series.

Nevertheless, taking into account its strikingly consistent anatomic localization, its unique histopathologic and immunohistochemical profile, in conjunction with the most recent and convincing ultrastructural arguments, we suggest that chordoid glioma of the third ventricle could be better classified as chordoid ependymoma of the lamina terminalis area.


Pediatric chordoid glioma with chondroid metaplasia.

Castellano-Sanchez AA, Schemankewitz E, Mazewski C, Brat DJ.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2001 Nov-Dec;4(6):564-7 Abstract quote

Chordoid gliomas are uncommon primary brain tumors that arise in the region of the third ventricle. Reports of this entity to date have been limited to adults.

We present a case of a chordoid glioma arising in the hypothalamic/third ventricle region of a 12-year-old male who presented with visual symptoms. The neoplasm consisted of cords and clusters of well-differentiated, spindled-to-rounded cells containing abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm within a prominent mucinous matrix. Unlike other chordoid gliomas, this lesion contained islands and sheets showing cartilaginous differentiation intermixed with the glial component. A graded transition between neoplastic glial and chondroid regions was evident, and cells in both regions were strongly immunoreactive for GFAP and S-100.

Cartilaginous metaplasia is infrequent in gliomas, but occurs most often in pediatric neoplasms of the midline such as this chordoid glioma. Thus, chondroid metaplasia represents an unusual histopathologic feature of chordoid glioma-in this case, presenting in a child.


Electron microscopy (EM)


Clinicopathological and ultrastructural study in two cases of chordoid glioma.

Taraszewska A, Bogucki J, Andrychowski J, Koszewski W, Czernicki Z.

Department of Neuropathology, Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland.
Folia Neuropathol. 2003;41(3):175-82. Abstract quote  

Chordoid glioma is a rare benign neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis occurring in the third ventricle/ /suprasellar region. Recently, data have emerged suggesting that chordoid glioma is a variant of ependymoma related to a specialised ependyma of the subcommisural organ or the lamina terminalis area.

In this study, we report clinicopathological and ultrastructural findings in two chordoid glioma cases. In case 1, a tumour (1.5 cm in diameter) in a 62-year-old man invaded the anterior-basal part of the third ventricle in the lamina terminalis region. In case 2, a large tumour in a 51-year-old woman occupied the whole third ventricle. The tumour attached to the medio-basal hypothalamic region. Histologically, both cases revealed a distinct chordoma-like pattern and glial immunophenotype of tumour cells. Under the electron microscope the tumour cells exhibited microvilli, intercellular lumina, intermediate type junctions and focal basal lamina formations. These findings were similar to those previously reported in the chordoid glioma cases. Moreover, the intracytoplasmic cilia and subplasmalemmal pinocytic vesicles or caveoles were observed.

The study supports the view of ependymal derivation of chordoid glioma. Its relation to lamina terminalis or infundibular/median eminence area presumably reflecting tumour origin from the modified ependyma of circumventricular organs of the third ventricle is discussed.

Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: its tanycytic differentiation.

Sato K, Kubota T, Ishida M, Yoshida K, Takeuchi H, Handa Y.

Department of Neurosurgery, Fukui Medical University, 23 Shimoaizuki, Yoshida-gun, Matsuoka-cho, 910-1193 Fukui, Japan.
Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 2003 Aug;106(2):176-80. Epub 2003 May 14. Abstract quote  

A chordoid glioma in the third ventricle was studied immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. In this report, special attention is paid to the histogenesis in relation to the pathological appearance and unique anatomic location of this tumor. Light microscopic and immunohistochemical findings were similar to those reported previously.

Ultrastructurally, microvilli were frequently seen, but three types of abnormal cilia were rarely observed. Basement membrane around the tumor cells and microvessels was extensive. Poorly to moderately developed intermediate (adherent) junctions were frequently seen. Resemblance of these ultrastructural features of the tumor to embryonic tanycytes suggests the tanycytic differentiation of chordoid glioma. Neuroradiologically, all of the previously reported cases of chordoid gliomas seem to arise in the anterior part of the third ventricular floor.

This region includes the lamina terminalis, infundibular recess and median eminence, which corresponds to a tanycyte-rich area. These findings suggest a tanycytic origin of chordoid glioma.

Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: an ultrastructural study of three cases with a histogenetic hypothesis.

Cenacchi G, Roncaroli F, Cerasoli S, Ficarra G, Merli GA, Giangaspero F.

Institute of Electron Microscopy, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Am J Surg Pathol 2001 Mar;25(3):401-5 Abstract quote

Chordoid glioma is a rare neoplasm occurring in the third ventricle and, as the name implies, having a chordoid appearance. It is currently considered a glial neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with distinct clinicopathologic features.

We report three cases of chordoid glioma with a focus on the ultrastructural appearance. The patients were two men and one woman aged, respectively, 34, 40, and 43 years. Immunohistochemically, all tumors showed strong and diffuse reactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, whereas immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin was focal.

Ultrastructurally, they showed features of ependymal differentiation for the presence of an apical pole with microvilli and a basal pole characterized, as in normal ependyma, by many hemidesmosomelike structures connecting cell membranes to the underlying basal lamina. Constant features were a submicroscopic cell body zonation (i.e., perinuclear, intermediate, subapical, and apical regions) and the presence of secretory granules. These findings were similar to those described for the secretory ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ, a small structure located in a dorsocaudal region of the third ventricle that undergoes regression after birth in humans.

Our observations suggest that chordoid glioma may represent a subtype of ependymoma whose cells resemble the highly specialized ependyma of the subcommissural organ.



Third ventricular chordoid glioma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity.

Brat DJ, Scheithauer BW, Staugaitis SM, Cortez SC, Brecher K, Burger PC.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Mar;57(3):283-90 Abstract quote

We have encountered a series of 8 third ventricular neoplasms with a distinctive chordoid appearance that appear to represent a clinicopathologic entity.

The tumors occurred in 7 females and 1 male, ranging in age from 31 to 70 years. In all cases, imaging studies showed a large well-circumscribed third ventricular mass; a cystic component was noted in 2. The tumors consisted of cords and clusters of cohesive, oval-to-polygonal epithelioid cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, relatively uniform round-to-oval nuclei, and inconspicuous nucleoli. Mitotic activity was absent. The stroma consisted of scant, coarse fibrillar processes, as well as prominent, slightly basophilic, extracellular mucin resembling that in chordomas.

Throughout the tumor, and surrounding its well-defined borders, were infiltrates of mature lymphocytes and plasma cells. Russell bodies were prominent in the latter. Adjacent brain tissue showed reactive changes with gliosis and numerous Rosenthal fibers. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly reactive for GFAP and vimentin, but negative or only weakly staining for EMA. The MIB-1 labeling index was approximately 1%. Ultrastructural examination of 4 cases revealed focal microvilli, scattered "intermediate" junctions, and focal basal lamina formation. Neither desmosomes nor cilia were seen. Total resections were achieved in 2 cases; only subtotal removals were achieved in 6. Subsequent tumor enlargement was noted in 3 of the 6 patients with incomplete resection, and of these, two died at post-operative intervals of 8 months and 3 years. The other patient survives 4 years post-operatively with stable residual disease.

Of the 2 patients with total resection, 1 was lost to follow-up; the other, during a brief follow-up period, did well without evidence of recurrence.


Third ventricular chordoid glioma: case report and review of the literature.

Nakajima M, Nakasu S, Hatsuda N, Takeichi Y, Watanabe K, Matsuda M.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan

Surg Neurol. 2003 May;59(5):424-8 Abstract quote.  

BACKGROUND: Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a rare type of brain tumor that was recently characterized as a novel tumor entity. We present a case and review of the literature.

CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old woman presented with progressive headache, memory impairment and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a large well-circumscribed tumor in the third ventricle. The tumor was partially removed via a trans-lamina terminalis approach. The histologic findings indicated chordoid glioma. Residual tumor was treated by stereotactic radiosurgery and showed no regrowth at 2-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: The ideal therapy is total removal of the tumor. However, according to the literature, total removal of the tumor carries a high risk because of its location, and conventional radiation therapy has little effect on the residual tumor. On the other hand, stereotactic radiosurgery appears more promising, and to date, no regrowth has been reported after gamma-knife therapy.

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