Home Translating Report News Physicians Diseases Body Sites Lab tests Search
Home Diseases and Health Information


The digital rectal examination elicits discomfort in most men, but it is one of the best ways to inspect the prostate gland.  The prostate gland contributes to the semen production which carries the sperm.  Attached to the prostate gland are the seminal vesicles which also contribute to the semen volume.  The initial evaluation of patient with a suspicious nodule or an elevated serum PSA is a prostate needle core biopsy.  These biopsies are very thin and multiple levels are cut to facilliate the diagnosis.  If cancer is detected, a radical prostatectomy may be performed.  In addition to grading the prostate, the pathologist must evaluate the surgical margins as well as the presence of invasion into the adjacent seminal vesicles.  

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer-Histopathology and Histological Variants
Prostate Cancer Treatment and Prognosis
Prostate Infarction
Prostate specific antigen (PSA)


Disease Associations  
Other Diagnostic Testing
Gross Appearance and Clinical Variants  
Histopathological Features and Variants  
Special Stains/
Electron Microscopy
Differential Diagnosis  
Commonly Used Terms  
Internet Links  


Ectopic Prostatic Tissue in the Uterine Cervix A Report of Four Cases and Review of Ectopic Prostatic Tissue

Marisa R. Nucci, M.D.; Judith A. Ferry, M.D.; Robert H. Young, M.D. Clement PB, Young RH, eds.

From the Department of Pathology, Division of Women's and Perinatal Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (M.R.N.); and James Homer Wright Pathology Laboratories, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. (J.A.F., R.H.Y.).

Am J Surg Pathol 2000;24:1224-1230 Abstract quote

We report four examples of prostatic tissue occurring in the uterine cervix of patients aged 22, 25, 31, and 77 years.

Three were incidental findings in loop excisions (two patients) and cone biopsy (one patient) of the cervix for high-grade squamous dysplasia. One presented as a cervical mass, clinically suspected to represent a fibroid. The prostatic tissue consisted of ducts and acini, some of which had papillary or cribriform patterns. Squamous metaplasia was prominent in all cases. No Wolffian duct tissue was present. The glandular epithelium in all cases was positive for prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen. High molecular weight keratin, performed in two cases, highlighted basal cells in a manner similar to the normal prostate.

These unusual cases, only one of which is documented previously, further complicate the often-challenging area of interpretation of benign glandular lesions of the cervix. The unusual phenomenon of ectopic prostate tissue in general is reviewed.


Primary seminal vesicle carcinoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of four cases.

Ormsby AH, Haskell R, Jones D, Goldblum JR.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA

Mod Pathol 2000 Jan;13(1):46-51 Abstract quote

Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles is an extremely rare neoplasm. Because prompt diagnosis and treatment are associated with improved long-term survival, accurate recognition of this neoplasm is important, particularly when evaluating limited biopsy material.

Immunohistochemistry can be used to rule out neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, such as prostatic adenocarcinoma. Previous reports have shown that seminal vesicle adenocarcinoma (SVCA) is negative for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PAP); however, little else is known of its immunophenotype.

Consequently, we evaluated the utility of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and cytokeratin (CK) subsets 7 and 20 for distinguishing SVCA from other neoplasms that enter the differential diagnosis. Four cases of SVCA-three cases of bladder adenocarcinoma and a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising in a mullerian duct cyst-were immunostained for CA-125, CK7, and CK20. Three of four cases of SVCA were CA-125 positive and CK7 positive. All four cases were CK20 negative. All bladder adenocarcinomas and the mullerian duct cyst adenocarcinoma were CK7 positive and negative for CA-125 and CK20. In addition, CA-125 immunostaining was performed in neoplasms that commonly invade the seminal vesicles, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (n = 40), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (n = 32), and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 10), and all were negative for this antigen.

In conclusion, the present study has shown that the CK7-positive, CK20-negative, CA-125-positive, PSA/PAP-negative immunophenotype of papillary SVCA is unique and can be used in conjunction with histomorphology to distinguish it from other tumors that enter the differential diagnosis, including prostatic adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, PSA/PAP positive), bladder transitional cell carcinoma (CK20 positive, CA-125 negative), rectal adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative, CK7 negative, CK20 positive), bladder adenocarcinoma (CA-125 negative), and adenocarcinoma arising in a mullerian duct cyst (CA-125 negative).


Adult prostate sarcoma: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Experience.

Sexton WJ, Lance RE, Reyes AO, Pisters PW, Tu SM, Pisters LL.

Department of Urology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

J Urol 2001 Aug;166(2):521-5 Abstract quote

PURPOSE: Sarcoma of prostate origin is rare. Historically, long-term survival rates for adult patients with prostate sarcoma are poor. We analyzed the experience of 1 institution with prostate sarcoma during the last 3 decades.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 21 patients with prostate sarcoma were reviewed to identify symptoms at presentation, diagnostic procedures, presence and development of metastases, staging evaluation, histological subtype, grade and size of the primary tumor, and treatment sequence, including surgery, and preoperative and postoperative therapies. Several clinicopathological variables were assessed for prognostic importance.

RESULTS: Most patients presented with urinary obstruction. The diagnosis of prostate sarcoma was usually established with ultrasound guided biopsy or transurethral resection. Histological subtypes were leiomyosarcoma in 12, rhabdomyosarcoma in 4, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1 and unclassified sarcoma in 4 patients. At last followup, 8 patients had no evidence of disease after a median of 81.5 months (range 10 to 197). The remaining 13 patients died of sarcoma (median survival 18 months, range 3 to 94). The 1, 3 and 5-year actuarial survival rates for all 21 patients were 81%, 43% and 38%, respectively. Factors predictive of long-term survival were negative surgical margins (p = 0.0005) and absence of metastatic disease at presentation (p = 0.0004). Tumor size and grade, and the histological subtype of prostate sarcoma had no significant influence on actuarial survival.

CONCLUSIONS: The long-term disease specific survival rate for adults with prostate sarcoma is poor. Early diagnosis and complete surgical resection offer patients the best chance for cure.

Henry JB. Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. Twentieth Edition. WB Saunders. 2001.
Rosai J. Ackerman's Surgical Pathology. Ninth Edition. Mosby 2004.
Sternberg S. Diagnostic Surgical Pathology. Fourth Edition. Lipincott Williams and Wilkins 2004.
Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. Seventh Edition. WB Saunders 2005.
DeMay RM. The Art and Science of Cytopathology. Volume 1 and 2. ASCP Press. 1996.
Weedon D. Weedon's Skin Pathology Second Edition. Churchill Livingstone. 2002
Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill. 1999.
Weiss SW and Goldblum JR. Enzinger and Weiss's Soft Tissue Tumors. Fourth Edition. Mosby 2001.

Commonly Used Terms in Prostate Disease

Corpora Amylacea-These are solid concretions present within the lumina of some of the prostate glands.  It is formed from solidification of glandular secretions and is benign. 

Crystalloids-These are crystalline-like deposits sometimes present within cancerous glands.  When present, a careful search for cancerous glands should be performed. 

Gleason's Grade/Score-This is the most commonly used grading system for prostate cancer.  Two grades (ranging from 1-5) are given, based upon the predominant and next most predominant cancer patterns.  The two grades are added together to obtain a score (Example:  4+3/10).

PIN-Stands for Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia.  It is considered an important precursor lesion for prostate carcinoma.  It is graded low grade to high grade. 

Basic Principles of Disease
Learn the basic disease classifications of cancers, infections, and inflammation

Commonly Used Terms
This is a glossary of terms often found in a pathology report.

Diagnostic Process
Learn how a pathologist makes a diagnosis using a microscope

Surgical Pathology Report
Examine an actual biopsy report to understand what each section means

Special Stains
Understand the tools the pathologist utilizes to aid in the diagnosis

How Accurate is My Report?
Pathologists actively oversee every area of the laboratory to ensure your report is accurate

Got Path?
Recent teaching cases and lectures presented in conferences

Internet Links

Last Updated July 26, 2005

Send mail to The Doctor's Doctor with questions or comments about this web site.
Read the Medical Disclaimer.

Copyright © The Doctor's Doctor