Hypopgimented skin lesions may be a very disfiguring condition. It is important to accurately diagnose the underlying disease since the treatment and disease associations vary so greatly. The following is a list of some major diseases.
Clear Cell Papulosis
Pathogenesis Gross Appearance and Clinical Variants Commonly Used Terms Internet Links
MELANOCYTOPENIC (MELANOCYTES DECREASED OR ABSENT)
ETIOLOGIC FACTORS DISEASE Chemical Catechols (certain)
Monobenzylether of hydroquinone
Para-substituted phenols (certain)
Endocrine Genetic Ataxia telangiectasia
(Alezzandrini's syndrome, Idiopathic, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome)
Inflammatory Actinic reticuloid
Pityriasis lichenoides chronica
Metabolic Neoplastic Halo nevus
Leukoderma acquisitum centrifugum
Nutritional Vitamin B12 deficiency Physical Burns
(Ionizing, thermal, UV)
Miscellaneous Alopecia areata
MELANOPENIC (MELANIN DECREASED OR ABSENT)
ETIOLOGIC FACTORS DISEASE Chemical Arsenicals
Endocrine Addison's disease
(Types I-III oculocutaneous albinism)
Postinflammatory (DLE, eczema, psoriasis)
Metabolic Alpert's syndrome
Chromosomal 5p defect
Neoplastic Melanoma (Halo) Nutritional Chronic protein loss
Physical Post dermabrasion
Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis
NONMELANOCYTIC (NO MELANIN DEFECT)
ETIOLOGIC FACTORS DISEASE Chemical Endocrine Genetic Nevus anemicus Inflammatory Woronoff's ring Metabolic Neoplastic Nutritional Physical Miscellaneous Anemia
CLINICAL VARIANTS CHARACTERIZATION HYPOMELANOSIS OF ITO
Hypomelanosis of ITO. A study of 76 infantile cases.
Pascual-Castroviejo I, Roche C, Martinez-Bermejo A, Arcas J, Lopez-Martin V, Tendero A, Esquiroz JL, Pascual-Pascual SI.
Pediatric Neurology Service, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain.
Brain Dev 1998 Jan;20(1):36-43 Abstract quote
We show the complications observed in a large series of children with hypomelanosis of Ito (HI) or incontinentia pigmenti achromians, studied in a neurology service over 30 years.
Of the 76 patients, 35 were male (46%) and 41 female (54%) with ages ranging from newborn to 10 years at the time of the first visit. They were thoroughly studied from the clinical, genetic, psychological, neuroradiological, with computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalographic (EEG) points of view. Mental retardation was observed in 43 cases (57%) of whom eight (10%) showed autistic behavior; 16 (21%) were borderline and only 17 (22%) had a normal mental level (IQ > 85). Thirty-seven patients (49%) had seizures, consisting of infantile spasms in six cases (8%). Twelve cases showed macrocephaly and coarse facies, six had microcephaly, and 14 showed hypotonia with pes valgus and genu valgus. Three cases of cerebellar hypoplasia, another of intracranial arteriovenous malformation and another of distal spinal muscular atrophy were observed as well. Some other anomalies, such as syndactyly, clinodactyly, abnormalities of the skeleton, asymmetry of the facies, ears, body and/or extremities, gynecomastia and asymmetrical breasts, short stature, oral alterations, congenital cardiopathies and genital anomalies, were also occasionally found. Three children died, but necropsy was performed only in one. Anatomical and histological studies did not disclose specific findings.
PROGRESSIVE MACULAR HYPOMELANOSIS
Propionibacterium acnes and the Pathogenesis of Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis.
Westerhof W, Relyveld GN, Kingswijk MM, De Man P, Menke HE.
Netherlands Institute for Pigment Disorders, and the Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Arch Dermatol. 2004 Feb;140(2):210-4. Abstract quote
BACKGROUND: Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common hypopigmentation mainly on the central parts of the trunk, predominantly in young adults, especially women. It is often mistaken for pityriasis versicolor and pityriasis alba. It occurs in all races and has been described in many parts of the world. We discovered follicular red fluorescence restricted to lesional skin.
We suspected a relation with a porphyrin-producing bacteria residing in sebum of the pilosebaceous duct, and we therefore performed a study in 8 patients.Observation In all biopsy specimens taken from lesional skin of 8 women, we could demonstrate gram-positive bacteria in the pilosebaceous duct, and a mild perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate was seen. In all but 1 patient, Propionibacterium acnes was yielded from cultured biopsy specimens taken from follicular lesional skin. Healthy follicular skin did not show bacteria in histological sections, and cultures did not yield anaerobic bacteria.
CONCLUSIONS: There seems to be a relation between the presence of P acnes and the hypopigmented macules. We propose that a factor is produced by these strains of P acnes, which interfere with melanogenesis. Based on these observations, we are undertaking a clinical trial to find a treatment for this troubling, intractable disease.
Modified from Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, Fifth Edition. 1999. McGraw-Hill. Pg. 946-947.
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Last Updated 2/23/2004
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