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Background

This rare tumor is identified in the liver and children and adolescents. To date, the few cases that have been described have been benign although one study did report a recurrence.

OUTLINE

Epidemiology  
Disease Associations  
Pathogenesis  
Laboratory/Radiologic/
Other Diagnostic Testing
 
Gross Appearance and Clinical Variants  
Histopathological Features and Variants  
Special Stains/
Immunohistochemistry/
Electron Microscopy
 
Differential Diagnosis  
Prognosis  
Treatment  
Commonly Used Terms  
Internet Links  

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION
SYNONYMS  
INCIDENCE/
PREVALENCE
 
AGE  
SEX  
GEOGRAPHY  
EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASSOCIATIONS  

 

DISEASE ASSOCIATIONS CHARACTERIZATION

 

PATHOGENESIS CHARACTERIZATION

 

LABORATORY/
RADIOLOGIC/
OTHER TESTS

CHARACTERIZATION
RADIOLOGIC  
LABORATORY MARKERS  

 

GROSS APPEARANCE/
CLINICAL VARIANTS
CHARACTERIZATION
GENERAL  
Desmoplastic Nested Spindle Cell Tumor of Liver: Report of Four Cases of a Proposed New Entity.

Hill DA, Swanson PE, Anderson K, Covinsky MH, Finn LS, Ruchelli ED, Nascimento AG, Langer JC, Minkes RK, McAlister W, Dehner LP.

From the *Lauren V. Ackerman Laboratory of Surgical Pathology, Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's Hospitals, and Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, MO;
Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Jan;29(1):1-9. Abstract quote

ABSTRACT:: We describe a distinctive tumor of the liver in four children composed of nested spindled and epithelioid cells with extensive desmoplasia that we have termed "desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumor of the liver."

All four patients were previously healthy. One patient had a presumptive diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma 11 years prior to presentation. Grossly, the tumors were well circumscribed, lobular white masses, ranging from 2.8 to 15 cm in diameter. These tumors were characterized by the presence of cohesive nests of plump, bland spindle cells arranged in short fascicles with an accompanying desmoplastic stroma. Epithelioid areas ranging from palisading epithelioid cells at the periphery of some nests to pseudoglandular and polygonal cells with intercellular bridges were invariably present. Mitotic activity was low. Calcification and ossification were present. Non-neoplastic bile ducts and hepatic elements were seen both within and surrounding the tumor cell nests. Each tumor displayed cytoplasmic reactivity for vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, CD57, and nuclear staining for WT1. Neuroendocrine markers were negative.

Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells showed focally well-developed cell junctions, basal lamina, and few cytoplasmic organelles. All tumors were confined to the liver and were resected without complication. Two patients received postoperative adjuvant therapy for presumed hepatoblastoma.

The patients are doing well without recurrence at 7.5 years, 7 years, 5 years, and 8 months post-surgery. The morphologic appearance and immunohistochemical profile of these lesions are unique in our experience and represent a new category of pediatric liver tumor.
Nested Stromal Epithelial Tumor of the Liver: Six Cases of a Distinctive Pediatric Neoplasm With Frequent Calcifications and Association With Cushing Syndrome.

Heerema-McKenney A, Leuschner I, Smith N, Sennesh J, Finegold MJ.

From the *Department of Pathology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX;
Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Jan;29(1):10-20. Abstract quote

Rare cases of nonhepatocytic mixed stromal and epithelial tumors of the liver with associated calcification and ossification have been described previously.

We report 6 similar cases in children, including 2 cases associated with ectopic ACTH production. The patients were between 2 and 14 years of age at diagnosis. All tumors presented as a solitary liver mass with no extrahepatic involvement. Two adolescent females with palpable abdominal tumors presented with Cushing syndrome that abated after excision of the tumors. The other children had tumors identified incidentally on imaging studies or at laparotomy. All tumors were well circumscribed, ranging in size from 4.0 to 30.0 cm in greatest diameter.

Histologically, they shared an organoid arrangement of cellular nests that were comprised of an admixture of both spindled and epithelioid cells. These cellular nests were surrounded by a band of delicate myofibroblasts and set in a dense fibrous stroma that contained slit-like to dilated blood vessels. A variable proliferation of bile ducts extended from the fibrous stroma and focally surrounded the cellular nests. One case showed a sheet-like overgrowth of the nested cells with associated necrosis.

The cellular nest cells were immunoreactive for EMA, CD56, neuron specific enolase, pan-cytokeratin (4 of 6 cases), vimentin (5 of 6 cases), and WT-1 amino terminus (4 of 6 cases). Cytokeratin and EMA stained mostly epithelioid nest cells, with vimentin and WT-1 staining predominantly the spindled nest cells. The 3 cases from adolescent females showed immunoreactivity for ACTH in the nested cell population but not in the surrounding stromal cells. Immunohistochemical stains for synaptophysin and chromogranin were negative in all cases. Psammomatous calcifications were present focally in 2 cases and were extensive in 3 cases. Ossification or osteoid formation was present in 4 cases.

The 1 patient whose tumor had sheet-like overgrowth of the nested cell population had a local recurrence with multiple hepatic nodules 1 year following the original resection. A 2-year-old patient has been subsequently diagnosed with nephroblastomatosis and Wilms tumor of the kidney. Follow-up information was available in an additional 3 patients with no tumor recurrence or metastatic disease at 2, 3, and 14 years.

 

HISTOLOGICAL TYPES CHARACTERIZATION
GENERAL  

 

SPECIAL STAINS/
IMMUNOPEROXIDASE/
OTHER
CHARACTERIZATION
SPECIAL STAINS  
IMMUNOPEROXIDASE  
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

 

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS KEY DIFFERENTIATING FEATURES

 

PROGNOSIS CHARACTERIZATION

 

TREATMENT CHARACTERIZATION
GENERAL  
   

Henry JB. Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. Twentieth Edition. WB Saunders. 2001.
Rosai J. Ackerman's Surgical Pathology. Ninth Edition. Mosby 2004.
Sternberg S. Diagnostic Surgical Pathology. Fourth Edition. Lipincott Williams and Wilkins 2004.
Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. Seventh Edition. WB Saunders 2005.
DeMay RM. The Art and Science of Cytopathology. Volume 1 and 2. ASCP Press. 1996.
Weedon D. Weedon's Skin Pathology Second Edition. Churchill Livingstone. 2002
Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill. 1999.
Weiss SW and Goldblum JR. Enzinger and Weiss's Soft Tissue Tumors. Fourth Edition. Mosby 2001.


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Last Updated January 19, 2005

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